THE COLLECTION
RESOURCES
TIMURIDS

Timur bin Taraghay Barlas (Tamerlane)
AH 771-807 / AD 1370-1405


Timur was born into the Turko-Mongol Barlas tribe of Central Asia that traced its lineage back to the Mongol commander Qarachar Barlas. His early history is a bit obscure, with much of it now known to have been embellished after his lifetime. What is certain is that his tribe was part of the Chagatai Khanate, and Timur first rose to prominence as a military leader while campaigning in the service of the Chagatai Khan circa 1360. His successes led to his appointment by Khan Tughluk Timur to head the Barlas tribe. The death of the Tughluk in 1363 fractured the khanate, and precipitated a civil war between the various tribes. Timur took advantage of this situation, and was proclaimed sovereign in 1370, but initially remained a nominal vassal of the Chagatai khan. The following decade saw his consolidation of power in his homelands around Samarkand, after which time he began a series of military campaigns to expand his domain which lasted until his death in 1405. From 1383-1385, he conquered Persia, which had been in relative chaos following the fall of the Ilkhanids in the mid-1300s. In 1385, the khan of the Golden Horde, Tokhtamysh, once an ally of Timur, invaded Azerbaijan, sparking a war between the two that lasted over the next decade. With the defeat of Tokhtamysh at the battle of Kur River, Timur added most of the Horde's lands to his own domains. Although Tokhtamysh and the remnants of his army held out in the Ukraine until his final defeat in 1399 at the battle of Vorskla River, Timur's primary attention turned to India, where he defeated the Tughlaq sultan of Delhi in 1398. Timur's territories now included Transoxiana, Persia, the Caucasus, and northern India. Events then drew his attention to the West. Timur saw himself as a decendant of Chinghiz Khan, somewhat legitimated by his marriage into the Khan's family, and he apparently sought to assert his control on the territories that had been under Mongol rule. The sultan of the Ottoman Turks, Beyazid I, had annexed the territory of the Seljuks of Rum, who had been given their domains by the Mongols. As such, they appealed to Timur, who then took up arms against the Ottomans and their ally, the Mamluks of Egypt. In 1399, Timur invaded Syria, defeated the Mamluk sultan, and captured Aleppo and Damascus. Afterward, his army moved into Mesopotamia, conquering Baghdad in 1401, then turned to the northwest, invading Anatolia in 1402. Timur defeated the Ottoman army at the battle of Ankara, and captured Beyazid (he died in captivity a few years later). After restoring the Seljuks, Timur returned to Samarkand, and prepared to attack China. The Chinese Ming Dynasty had evicted the Mongols from China, and Timur intended to restore them. Operations began in 1404, and Timur's forces advanced to the Sihon (Syr-Daria), where Timur became ill, dying shortly thereafter at Atrar in 1405. Timur was apparently paranoid of potential rivals, and had therefore installed weak rulers over the various parts of his empire. The result was that after he died his empire immediately fractured into civil war. Although his dynasty quickly retained Transoxiana and Persia for another century, their control of northern India was the most enduring. In 1526, Babur, a direct descendant of Timur, established the Mughal dynasty in India, which lasted until 1857.

Timur was known in the west as Tamurlane, which was a Latinized form of the name Timur-i Lang (Timur the Lame). This name was given to him for the limp he had from a leg injury sustained early in his career. Although it is thought that his father, Taraghay, was an enlightened ruler in his tribe, Timur was certainly not. While he was a patron of the arts, and was responsible for the development of a new style of architecture, his conquests were often accompanied by large-scale massacres, which gave him a reputation for severe cruelty.



                AR Tanka (6.67 g, 30mm, 3). With Chagatai Khan Suyurghatmish.

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Rev:


Ref:
Pedig:
No mint inscribed (Samarkand?).
Circa AH 785-90 / AD 1383-8.
Central kufic legend:
         la ilah illa | Allah, Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity except | God, Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu Bakr al-Sadiq | 'Umar al-Faruq | 'Uthman al-'Affan | 'Ali al-Murtada
         (Abu Bakr, the faithful witness | 'Umar, the discriminator | 'Uthman, the chaste | 'Ali, the chosen)
Within octolobe, Naskh legend:
         al-sultan al-'adil | Suyurghatmish khan | amir a'zam Timur | [Kur]kan al-[...]
         (The just sultan | Suyurghatmish Khan | great amir Timur | [Kur]kan, the [...])
SNA Tübingen -; SICA 9, -; Album 2374.
Ex Album FPL 239 (November 2008), no. 71582.



                AR Miri (1.38 g, 17mm, 3). With Chagatai Khan Suyurghatmish.

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Ref:
Samarkand.
Dated AH 785 (AD 1383/4).
Central kufic legend:
         la ilah illa Allah, | Muhammad rasulu- | allah 785
         (There is no deity except God, | Muhammad is the messenger of | God 785)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         duriba | [Sa-] | mar- | qan
         (Struck at | [Sa-] | mar- | qan)
Within octolobe, Naskh legend:
         Suyu- | yarlighi amir | -rghatmish khan | Timur Kur(kan) | uge manu
         (Suyu- | by order (of) amir | -rghatmish Khan | Timur Kur(kan) | my word)
Komaroff pl. 37, 1; SNA Tübingen 1020-2; SICA 9, 834-7; Album 2375.
Notes: Early Timurid coinage was generally an adaptation of local money types already present in the areas he conquered. This coin is from Timur's earliest coinage, struck at his capital, Samarkand. These small coins, called miri, were the primary silver denomination, and generally equivalent to a dirhem. Its obverse has a quadrilateral prominently displaying the kalima (la ilah illa Allah, Muhammad rasuluallah), with the date at the end of the last line. Surrounding the quadrilateral is a marginal legend denoting the mint (darb Samarqan[d]). The reverse type is a simple five line legend in Naskh script: Suyurghatmish khan yarlighi amir Timur Kurkan uge manu. Although the legend begins by citing Timur's nominal Chagatai overlord, Suyurghatmish Khan, the placement of the word yarlighi, meaning "by order," implies that he serves at Timur's pleasure. This is followed by Timur's title (amir), name, and epithet (Kurkan), which he took after marrying into Chingiz Khan's family (gurkan is the Persian form of the Mongolian word kurugan, which means "son-in-law"). The final words, uge manu, meaning "my word," are more enigmatic.



                AR Miri (1.49 g, 18mm, 6). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

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Ref:
Samarkand.
Dated AH 790 (AD 1388/9).
Central kufic legend:
         la ilah illa Allah, | Muhammad rasulu- | allah 790
         (There is no deity except God, | Muhammad is the messenger of | God 790)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         duriba | [Sa-] | [mar-] | qan
         (Struck at | [Sa-] | [mar-] | qan)
Within octolobe, Naskh legend:
         sultan | Mahmud Khan yarlighi | amir Timur | Kurkan uge manu
         (Sultan | Mahmud Khan by the order of | Amir Timur | Kurkan my word)
Komaroff pl. 37, 2; SNA Tübingen 1031-2; SICA 9, 845; Album 2381.



                AR Miri (1.46 g, 15mm, 11). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

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Ref:
Samarkand.
Dated AH 801 (AD 1399/1400).
Central Naskh legend, flanked by ornate pattern:
         sanat | 801
         (year | 801)
Above and below, Naskh legend:
         la ilah illa Allah | Muhammad rasuluallah
         (There is no deity except God | Muhammad is the messenger of God)
[The Rashidun in margins]
Central Naskh legend, flanked by ornate pattern:
         dariba | qand | Samar-
         (struck at | Samar- \ qand)
Above and below, Naskh legend:
         [al-]sultan Mahmud Khan | [amir ]Timur Kurkan
         ([al-]sultan Mahmud Khan | Amir Timur Kurkan)
Ornaments in margins.
Komaroff pl. 37, 2; SNA Tübingen 1056; SICA 9, 845; Album 2381.



                AR Tanka (6.10 g, 25mm, 8). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

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Ref:
Pedig:
Herat.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central kufic legend:
         la ilah illa | Allah, Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity except | God, Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu Bakr | 'Umar | 'Uthman | ['Ali]
         (same)
Central Naskh legend, with three annulets:
         Herat
         (same)
Around which, Naskh legend within five circles, clockwise from the left:
         al-sultan | al-a'zam | Mahmud Khan | al-amir mu'azzam | Timur Kurkan
         (The supreme \ sultan | Mahmud Khan | The great amir | Timur Kurkan)
Komaroff pl. 37, 5; SICA 9, -; Album 2386.
Ex Album List 221 (February 2007), no. 53410.
Notes: Herat, one of Timur's primary mints, was where Timur introduced his new silver tanka in 1390. This currency was adopted at all of his mints over the following decade, though mostly retaining local types. At Herat, the obverse of the tanka retained the kalima in a central quadrilobe, with an outer legend composed of the names of the Rashidun, the four "rightly-guided" caliphs, Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, and 'Ali. The reverse type of Herat tankas were unique among Timur's coinage: Four large circles were circularly arranged, forming a central area that contained the mint name (which was not present on all examples). The five circles contained the name and titles of both Timur and his nominal Chagatai overlord. All of these Herat tankas invoke the Chagatai khan Mahmud, even after the khan's death in 1402.



                AR Tanka (4.79 g, 25mm, 1). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

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Ref:
Herat.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central kufic legend:
         la ilah (illa) Allah, | Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity (except) God, | Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu Bakr | 'Umar | 'Uthman | 'Ali
         (same)
Within polylobe, Naskh legend:
         al-sultan al-a'zam | Mahmud Khan, amir |Timur Kurkan
         (The supreme sultan | Mahmud Khan, amir | Timur Kurkan)
Uncertain legend or ornaments in margin.
SICA 9, -; Album 2379.



                AR Tanka (6.01 g, 26mm, 6). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

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Ref:
Sabzawar.
Dated AH 801 (AD 1399/1400).
Central kufic legend:
         [la ilah] illa Allah, | Muhammad | [rasu]luallah
         ([There is no] deity except God, | Muhammad | [is the messenger] of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [Abu Bakr] | 'Umar | 'Uthman | ['Ali]
         (same)
Central Naskh legend:
         sanat | duriba | Sabzawar | 801
         (Year | Struck at | Sabzawar | 801)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from upper right:
         [al-sultan al-a'zam Mahmud khan] al-amir al-a'zam Timur [Kurkan]
         ([The supreme sultan, Mahmud Khan.] The supreme amir, Timur [Kurkan])
SICA 9, -; Album 2386.



                AR Tanka (6.03 g, 27mm, 3). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

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Ref:
Pedig:
Astarabad.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central kufic legend, in spiral from lower right:
         la ilah illa | Allah, | Muhammad | rasulu- | -allah
         (There is no deity except | God, | Muhammad | is the messenger of | God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from left:
         Abu Bakr | ['Umar] | ['Uthman] | ['Ali]
         (same)
Central Naskh legend:
         al-sultan Mahmud [Khan] | al-'adil amir Timur [Kurkan] | khallada Allah mu[lkahu] | Astarabad
         (al-sultan Mahmud [Khan] | the just amir Timur | Kurkan | may God perpetuate his reign | Astarabad)
SICA 9, -; Album 2386.
Ex Album FPL 240 (January 2009), no. 74015.
Notes: Astarabad is mod. Gorgan, captial of the Iranian province of Golestan, and Hyrcania of the ancient world.



                AR Tanka (5.82 g, 27mm, 3). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
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Ref:
Damghan.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central Naskh legend:
         duriba | Damghan
         (Struck at | Damghan)
Around which, in spiral from lower right:
         la ilah | illa Allah, | Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity | except God, | Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal retrograde Kufic legend, clockwise from top:
         [Abu Bakr] | ['Umar] | 'Uthman | 'Ali
         (same)
Central Kufic legend:
         al-sultan Mahmud Khan | (three pellets) amir Timur | khallada Allah mulkahu | Kurkan
         (Sultan Mahmud Khan | (three pellets) Amir Timur | may God perpetuate his reign | Kurkan)
Uncertain marginal legend
SICA 9, -; Album 2386.
Notes: Damghan is an ancient city dating to the Achaemenid perod, and possiby earlier. There is confusion as to whether it was the same city as the ancient Hekatompylos, or located in very close proximity to it..



                AR Miri (0.96 g, 16mm, 8). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

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Ref:
Amul (Amol).
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central kufic legend:
         [la] ilah illa | [Allah], Muhammad | rasuluallah
         ([There is] no deity except | [God,] Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [Abu] Bakr | ['Umar] | ['Uthman] | ['Ali]
         (same)
Central Naskh legend:
         duriba | Amul
         (Struck at | Amul)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [...] Khan Mahmud al-amir al-a'zam Timur [....]
         ([...] Mahmud Khan. The supreme amir, Timur [....])
SICA 9, -; Album 2383.



                AR 2 Dinars (1.35 g, 17mm, 11). With Chagatai Khan Suyurghatmish.

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Ref:
Qumm (Qom).
Circa AH 785-790 / AD 1383-1388.
Within hexafoil, Kufic legend:
         la [ilah illa] | Allah, Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There [is no deity except] | God, Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [Abu Bakr] | ['Umar] | 'Uthman | 'Ali
         (same)
Central Naskh legend:
         duriba | Qumm
         (Struck at | Qumm)
Around, Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [al-su]ltan [al]-a'zam Suyurghatmish khan amir Timur [....]
         ([The] Just [Su]ltan Suyurghatmish Khan amir Timur [....])
SICA 9, -; Album 2367.



                AR 2 Dinars (1.44 g, 17mm, 8). With Chagatai Khan Suyurghatmish.

Mint:
Struck:
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Ref:
Pedig:
Qumm (Qom).
Circa AH 785-790 / AD 1383-1388.
Within hexafoil, Kufic legend:
         [la ilah illa] | Allah, Muhammad | rasuluallah
         ([There is no deity except] | God, Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [Abu Bakr] | ['Umar] | 'Uthman | ['Ali]
         (same)
Central Naskh legend:
         duriba | Qumm
         (Struck at | Qumm)
Around, Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [al-sultan] al-a'zam Suyurghatmish khan [...Timur Kur]kan
         (The Just [Sultan] Suyurghatmish Khan [...Timur Kur]kan)
SICA 9, -; Album 2367.
Ex Album FPL 240 (January 2009), no. 809365.
Notes: Dates for issue: 1383 - beginning of Persian campaign, 1388 - death of Suyurghatmish.



                AR Tanka (5.74 g, 23mm, 7). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
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Ref:
Qumm (Qom).
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central kufic legend:
         [la ilah] illa | Allah, Muhammad | rasuluallah
         ([There is no] deity except | God, Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
[Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:]
         [Abu Bakr al-Sadiq | 'Umar al-Faruq | 'Uthman al-'Affan | 'Ali al-Murtada]
         [(Abu Bakr, the faithful witness | 'Umar, the discriminator | 'Uthman, the chaste | 'Ali, the chosen)]
Central Naskh legend:
         duriba | Qumm
         (Struck at | Qumm)
Marginal Naskh legend, in four quadrilaterals, clockwise from the left:
         ... | ... al-a'zam | ... | ... khallada Allah mulkahu
         (... | ... the supreme | ... | ... may God perpetuate his reign)
SICA 9, -; Album 2386.



                AR Tanka (6.01 g, 26mm, 6). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

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Ref:
Yazd.
Dated AH 797 (AD 1395/6).
Central kufic legend:
         la ilah | illa Allah, | Muhammad | rasulu- | allah
         (There is no deity | except God, | Muhammad is the messenger | of God)
Marginal Naskh (floriate) legend, clockwise from upper right:
         Abu Bakr | 'Umar | 'Uthman | 'Ali
         (same)
Central Naskh legend:
         duriba | 797 | Yazd
         (Struck at | 797 | Yazd)
Marginal Naskh legend, clockwise from upper right:
         al-sultan al-a'zam Mahmud khan al-amir al-a'zam Timur Kurkan
         (The supreme sultan, Mahmud Khan. The supreme amir, Timur Kurkan)
SICA 9, -; COCBM 7, 28 var. (same obv. die; AH 798); Album 2386.



                AR 2 Dinars (1.44 g, 18mm, 1). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
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Rev:


Ref:
Pedig:
Yazd.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central kufic legend:
         [la ilah illa Allah] | [Muhammad] | rasuluallah
         ([There is no deity except God] | [Muhammad] | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [Abu Bakr] | ['Umar] | 'Uthman | ['Ali]
         (same)
Within polylobe(?), Naskh legend:
         [...] [Ma]hmud khan [...] | [...]Timur Kur[kan] | Yazd
         ([...] [Ma]hmud Khan [...] | [...]Timur Kur[kan] | Yazd)
SICA 9, -; Album 2371.
Ex Album FPL 240 (January 2009), no. 74004.



                AR 2 Dinars (1.43 g, 20mm, 3). With Chagatai Khan Suyurghatmish.

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Ref:
Pedig:
Abarquh.
Dated AH 789 (AD 1387/8).
Central Kufic legend:
         [la ilah] illa | [Allah], Muhammad | [rasuluallah]
         ([There is no deity] except | [God], Muhammad | [is the messenger of God])
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [Abu Bakr] | 'Umar | ['Uthman] | ['Ali]
         (same)
Central Naskh legend:
         duriba | Abarquh | 789
         (Struck in | Abarquh | 789)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from lower right:
         [Suyur]ghatmish [....]
         (same)
SICA 9, -; Album 2367.
Ex Album FPL 234 (May 2008), no. 802909.



                AR 2 Dinars (1.41 g, 18mm, 8). With Chagatai Khan Suyurghatmish.

Mint:
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Ref:
Pedig:
Shabankara.
Dated AH 789 (AD 1387/8).
Central Kufic legend:
         la ilah illa | Allah, Muhammad | [rasuluallah]
         (There is no deity except | God, Muhammad | [is the messenger of God])
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu Bakr | 'Umar | ['Uthman] | ['Ali]
         (same)
Central Naskh legend:
         duriba | Shabankara | 789
         (Struck in | Shabankara | 789)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from upper right:
         [al-sultan al-'adil Suyurghatmish khan] yarlighi, khallada Allah mulkahu, amir Timur [Kur]kan
                 [uge manu]
         ([The just sultan Suyurghatmish Khan] by the order (of), may God perpetuate his reign, amir Timur [Kur]kan,
                 [my word])
SICA 9, -; Album 2367.
Ex Album FPL 240 (January 2009), no. 73992.



                AR 2 Dinars (1.44 g, 19mm, 9). With Chagatai Khan Suyurghatmish.

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Ref:
Shiraz.
Undated issue, circa AH 785-790 / AD 1383-1388.
Central kufic legend:
         la ilah illa | Allah, Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity except | God, Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu Bakr | 'Umar | 'Uthman | ['Ali]
         (same)
Central Naskh legend:
         duriba | Shiraz
         (Struck at | Shiraz)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from upper right:
         [al-sultan al]-'adil Suyurghatmish khan yarlighi, khallada Allah mulkahu, amir Timur Kurkan [uge manu]
         ([The] just [sultan] Suyurghatmish Khan by the order (of), may God perpetuate his reign, amir Timur Kurkan,
                 [my word])
SICA 9, -; Album 2367.



                AR 2 Dinars (1.15 g, 17mm, 6). With Chagatai Khan Suyurghatmish.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:







Ref:
Pedig:
Shiraz.
Dated AH 789 (AD 1387/8).
Central kufic legend:
         la ilah [illa] | Allah, Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity [except] | God, Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [Abu Bakr] | 'Umar | 'Uthman | ['Ali]
         (same)
Central Naskh legend:
         duriba | Shiraz | 789
         (Struck at | Shiraz | 789)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from upper right:
         [al-]sult[an] al-'adil [Suyurghatmish] khan [yarlighi], khallada [Allah] mulkahu, amir Timur Kurkan
                 uge manu
         ([The] just sult[an] [Suyurghatmish] Khan [by the order (of)], may [God] perpetuate his reign, amir Timur Kurkan,
                 my word)
SICA 9, -; COCBM 10, 18t var. (date reverted); Album 2367.
Ex Album FPL 232 (March 2008), no. 59274.



                AR Tanka (6.11 g, 25mm, 8). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:





Ref:
Shiraz.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central kufic legend, in spiral from lower right:
         la ilah | illa Allah, | Muhammad | rasulu- | allah
         (There is no deity | except God, | Muhammad | is the messenger | of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu Bakr al-Sadiq | ['Umar al-Faruq] | ['Uthman al-'Affan] | ['Ali al-Murtada]
         (Abu Bakr, the faithful witness | ['Umar, the discriminator] | ['Uthman, the chaste] | ['Ali, the chosen])
Within octolobe, Naskh legend:
         al-sultan Mahmud khan | (rosette) duriba (rosette) | amir Timur (three annulets) Kurkan |
                 (rosette) Shiraz (rosette) | khallada Allah mulkahu
         (al-sultan Mahmud khan | (rosette) struck at (rosette) | amir Timur (three annulets) Kurkan |
                 (rosette) Shiraz (rosette) | may God perpetuate his reign)
Date in Naskh in margin (mostly obscured)
SICA 9, 931 (same obv. die); Album 2386.



                AR 2 Dinars (1.40 g, 21mm, 6). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
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Rev:





Ref:
Isfahan.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Within quadrilobe(?), Kufic legend:
         la ilah illa | [Allah], Muhammad | [rasul]uallah
         (There is no deity except | [God], Muhammad | [is the messenger] of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu Bakr | 'Umar | ['Uthman] | ['Ali]
         (same)
Central Naskh legend:
         duriba | Isfahan
         (Struck at | Isfahan)
Around, Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [... al-a]'zam [Mah]mud [...] yarlighi [...] Timur [....]
         ([... The] just [Mah]mud [...] by order of [...] Timur [....])
SICA 9, -; Album 2371.



                AR 2 Dinars (1.50 g, 19mm, 7). With Chagatai Khan Suyurghatmish.

Mint:
Struck:
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Rev:





Ref:
Pedig:
Kazirun.
Dated AH 789 (AD 1387/8).
Central Kufic legend:
         la ilah illa | Allah, Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity except | God, Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [Abu Bakr] | 'Umar | ['Uthman] | 'Ali
         (same)
Central Naskh legend:
         duriba | Kazirun | 789
         (struck in | Kazirun | 789)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from lower right:
         Suyurghatmish [...] al-amir Timur Kurkan
         (Suyurghatmish [...]. The amir, Timur Kurkan....)
SICA 9, -; Album 2367.
Ex Album FPL 234 (May 2008), no. 802912.



                AR Tanka (6.27 g, 25mm, 9). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:





Ref:
Pedig:
Shaykh abu-Ishaq (Kazirun).
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central kufic legend, in spiral from lower right:
         la ilah | illa Allah, | Muhammad | rasulu- | allah
         (There is no deity | except God, | Muhammad | is the messenger | of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu Bakr al-Sadiq | ['Umar al-Faruq] | ['Uthman al-'Affan] | 'Ali al-Murtada
         (Abu Bakr, the faithful witness | ['Umar, the discriminator] | ['Uthman, the chaste] | 'Ali, the chosen)
Within octolobe, Naskh legend:
         al-sultan Mahmud khan | (rosette) duriba (rosette) | amir Timur (three annulets) Kurkan |
                 (rosette) shaykh abu Ishaq (rosette) | khallada Allah [mulkahu]
         (al-sultan Mahmud khan | (rosette) struck at (rosette) | amir Timur (three annulets) Kurkan |
                 (rosette) shaykh abu Ishaq (rosette) | may God perpetuate [his reign])
Date in Naskh in margin (mostly obscured)
SICA 9, -; Album 2386.
Ex Album FPL 231 (January 2008), no. 60507.



                AR 2 Dinars (1.94 g, 21mm, 12). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:


Rev:


Ref:
Pedig:
Kuhgilu (Kuhgiluya).
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Kufic legend, in spiral from lower right:
         la ilah | illa Allah, | Muhammad | rasulu- | -allah
         (There is no deity | except God, | Muhammad | is the messenger of | God)
Naskh legend:
         [... Mahm]ud Kh[an] | Kuhgilu (three annulets) | [am]ir Timur | Kurkan | [uncertain]
         ([... Mahm]ud Kh[an] | Kuhgilu (three annulets) | [am]ir Timur | Kurkan | [uncertain])
SICA 9, -; cf. Album 2368.
Ex Album FPL 238 (August 2008), no. 725 (69969).



                AR 2 Dinars (1.40 g, 21mm, 4).

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:



Ref:
Pedig:
Aydhaj (Izeh).
Uncertain.
Central kufic legend:
         la ilah illa | Allah, Muhammad | [rasuluallah]
         (There is no deity except | God, Muhammad | [is the messenger of God])
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu Bakr | ['Umar] | ['Uthman] | 'Ali
         (same)
Central Naskh legend:
         Aydhaj
         (Aydhaj)
Obscured marginal Naskh legend.
SICA 9, -; Album 2383.
Ex Album FPL 232 (March 2008), no. 62391.



                AR Tanka (6.00 g, 24mm, 10). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:



Ref:
Pedig:
Aydhaj (Izeh).
Dated AH (8)03 (AD 1400/1).
Central kufic legend:
         la ilah illa | Allah, Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity except | God, Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Kufic legend, counterclockwise from top:
         sana(?) | [...] | [...] | thelath
         (Struck(?) | [...] | [...] | three)
Within hexafoil, Naskh legend:
         al-sultan Mahmud | Khan, amir Timur | dariba Aydhaj Kurkan | [...]
         (al-sultan Mahmud | Khan, amir Timur \ Kurkan | stuck (at) Aydhaj | [...])
Uncertain marginal Naskh legend.
SICA 9, -; Album 2386.
Ex Album FPL 236 (August 2008), no. 805209.
Notes: The title, name, and epithet of Timur on this coin is in three lines, generally taking up the lower left quadrant of the reverse. Timur's name actually appears at the top, but his title, amir, which is in the second line, actually begins further to the right, so is listed first. His epithet, Kurkan, is in the third line, which is actually to the left of the mint name, Aydhaj.



                AR Tanka (5.53 g, 26mm, 9). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:








Rev:



Ref:
Shuster (Shushtar).
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central Naskh legend:
         duriba | Shu- | ster
         (Struck at | Shu- | ster)
Around which, in spiral from lower right:
         la ilah | illa Allah, | Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity | except God, | Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu Bakr | 'Umar | ['Uthman] | ['Ali]
         (same)
Within octolobe, Naskh legend:
         al-sultan Mahmud Khan | amir Timur Kurkan | khallada Allah mulkahu
         (Sultan Mahmud Khan | Amir Timur Kurkan | may God perpetuate his reign)
[Date in margin?]
SICA 9, -; Album 2386.



                AR Third Tanka (2.00 g, 18mm, 5). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:



Rev:





Ref:
Shuster (Shushtar).
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central Naskh legend:
         la ilah | illa Allah, | Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity | except God, | Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Uncertain Naskh legend in margin.
Within octolobe, Naskh legend:
         duriba | Shu- | ster
         (Struck at | Shu- | ster)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         al-sultan Mahmud [....]
         (Sultan Mahmud [....])
SICA 9, -; Album 2388G; Zeno 55171 (same dies).



                AR Tanka (5.84 g, 28mm, 1). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:


Ref:
Hilla.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central Naskh legend:
         la ilah illa Allah, | Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity except God, | Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu Bakr | 'Umar | 'Uthman | 'Ali
         (Abu Bakr | 'Umar | 'Uthman | 'Ali)
Naskh legend:
         duriba al- | al-sultan Mahmud | khan (three annulets) Hilla | amir Timur | Kurkan
         (Struck at al- | sultan Mahmud | khan (three annulets) Hilla | amir Timur | Kurkan)
SICA 9, -; Album 2386.



                AR Tanka (6.18 g, 24mm, 6). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:


Rev:





Ref:
Baghdad.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Naskh legend:
         la ilah illa Allah, | Muhammad rasulu- | -allah [...]
         (There is no deity except God, | Muhammad is the messenger of | God [...])
Central Naskh legend:
         al-sultan Mahmud Khan, | [dariba(?)] Baghdad | amir Timur Kurkan | khallada Allah
         (Sultan Mahmud Khan, | [struck at(?)] Baghdad | amir Timur Kurkan)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [Abu Bakr al-Sadiq] | 'Umar al-Faruq | 'Uthman al-'Affan | ['Ali al-Murtada]
         ([Abu Bakr, the faithful witness] | 'Umar, the discriminator | 'Uthman, the chaste | ['Ali, the chosen])
SICA 9, -; Album 2386.



                AR Akçe (0.97 g, 15mm, 7). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:



Ref:
Pedig:
Ardabil.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central Naskh legend:
         la ilah illa [Allah] | Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity except [God] | Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [Abu Bakr] | ['Umar] | 'Uthman | 'Ali
         (same)
Within hexafoil, Naskh legend:
         al-sultan Mahmud khan | amir Timur Kurkan | Ardabil
         (al-sultan Mahmud Khan | amir Timur Kurkan | Ardabil [barely visible])
Uncertain legend in margin (date?)
SICA 9, -; Album 2383.
Ex Album FPL 236 (August 2008), no. 805208.



                AR 2 Dinars (1.07 g, 16mm, 7). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:


Ref:
Pedig:
Kushtaspi.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Within quadrilobe, central Kufic legend:
         la ilah illa Allah | Muhammad | [rasulu]allah
         (There is no deity except God | Muhammad | [is the messenger of] God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [Abu Bakr] | 'Umar | 'Uthman | 'Ali
         (same)
Within hexafoil(?), Naskh legend:
         [dariba...] | al-sultan Mahmud [khan] |Timur Kurkan | Kushtaspi
         ([struck at...] | al-sultan Mahmud [Khan] | Timur Kurkan | Kushtaspi)
SICA 9, -; Album 2379.
Ex Album FPL 242 (March 2009), no. 63686.



                AR 2 Dinars (0.79 g, 14mm, 4). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:



Ref:
Tabriz.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central kufic legend:
         [la] ilah illa | [Allah,] Muhammad | rasuluallah
         ([There is] no deity except | [God], Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [Abu Bakr] | 'Umar | 'Uthman | ['Ali]
         (same)
Within polylobe, Naskh legend:
         al-sultan Mahmud Khan | [amir] kan |Timur Kur- | Tabriz
         (Sultan Mahmud Khan | [amir] kan \ Timur Kur- | Tabriz)
Uncertain legend or ornaments in margin.
SICA 9, -; Album 2379.



                AR Tanka (5.70 g, 25mm, 8). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:



Ref:
Pedig:
Usni.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central Kufic legend:
         [la ilah illa] Allah, | Muhammad | rasuluallah
         ([There is no deity except] God, | Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [Abu Bakr] | 'Umar | ['Uthman] | ['Ali]
         (same)
Within polylobe, Naskh legend:
         dariba | al-sultan | Mahmud Khan, | amir Timur (three pellets) Kurkan | khallada Allah | [mulkahu] Usni
         (struck at | sultan Mahmud Khan, | amir Timur (three pellets) Kurkan | may God perpetuate | [his reign] Usni)
Uncertain legend or ornaments in margin.
SICA 9, -; COCBM 7, 29; Album 2386.
Ex Album FPL 240 (January 2009), no. 809371.



                AR Tanka (5.73 g, 24mm, 11). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:






Rev:


Ref:
Mardin.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central Naskh legend:
         duriba | Mar- | din
         (Struck at | Mar- | din)
Around which, in spiral from upper right:
         la ilah illa | Allah | Muhammad rasul- | uallah
         (There is no deity except | God, | Muhammad is the messenger | of God)
[Names of the Rashidun in marginal Naskh legend]
Within octolobe, Naskh legend:
         al- | sultan Mahmud Khan | amir (three annulets) Timur | Kurkan | khallada [Allah mulkahu]
         (al-sultan Mahmud Khan | Amir (three annulets) Timur | Kurkan | may [God perpetuate his reign])
SICA 9, -; Album 2386.



                AR Akçe (1.45 g, 16mm, 7). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:








Rev:


Ref:
Pedig:
Mardin.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Central Kufic legend, from bottom:
         duriba | Mardin
         (Struck at | Mardin)
Around which, in spiral from upper right:
         la ilah illa | Allah, | Muhammad rasulu- | [allah]
         (There is no deity except | God, | Muhammad is the messenger | [of God])
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu Bakr | 'Umar | ['Uthman] | ['Ali]
         (same)
Within octolobe, Naskh legend:
         al-sultan Mahmud khan | amir (three annulets) Timur | Kurkan
         (al-sultan Mahmud khan | amir (three annulets) Timur | Kurkan)
SICA 9, -; Album 2383.
Ex Album FPL 242 (March 2009), no. 63687.
Notes: This coin is overstruck on another issue, with part of the reverse of the undertype is visible on the obverse.



                AR Tanka (5.99 g, 24mm, 2). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:



Ref:
Wastan.
Circa AH 790-807 / AD 1388-1405.
Within quadrilobe, Central Kufic legend:
         la ilah illa Allah, | Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity except God, | Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu Bakr | 'Umar | 'Uthman | 'Ali
         (same)
Within hexafoil, Naskh legend:
         dariba | al-sultan Mahmud khan | khallada Allah [...] | amir Timur Kurkan | Wastan
         (struck [at] | al-sultan Mahmud Khan | may God perpetuate [...] | amir Timur Kurkan | Wastan)
Uncertain legend (date?) in margin
SICA 9, -; Album 2386.



                AR Tanka (5.81 g, 28mm, 10). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:







Rev:


Ref:
Bidlis.
Circa AH 795-807 / AD 1393-1405.
Central Kufic legend:
         la ilah illa Allah, | Muhammad | [rasuluallah]
         (There is no deity except God, | Muhammad | [is the messenger of God])
Between the lines, Naskh legend          dariba | Bidlis
         (struck [at] | Bidlis)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu Bakr | ['Umar] | ['Uthman] | 'Ali
         (same)
Naskh legend:
         al-sultan | Mahmud Khan, | amir (three annulets) Timur | Kurkan khallada | Allah mulkahu
         (Sultan | Mahmud Khan | amir (three annulets) Timur | Kurkan may God perpetuate his reign)
SICA 9, -; Album 2386.
Notes: For the beginning of dating of this issue at Bidlis, see Diler, Mints, p. 256, n. 4343. The epigraphy after "Kurkan" is not certain.



                AR Tanka (5.65 g, 25mm, 2). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:


Ref:
Arzinjan (Erzincan).
Circa AH 804-807 / AD 1402-1405.
Central kufic legend:
         la ilah illa | Allah, Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity except | God, Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu | 'Umar | ['Uthman] | ['Ali]
         (same)
Naskh legend:
         ... | Mahmud Khan | amir (3 annulets) Timur | Kurkan khallada Allah | mulkahu duriba | Arzinjan
         (... | Mahmud Khan | amir (3 annulets) Timur | Kurkan may God perpetuate | his reign. Struck [at] | Arzinjan)
Cf. SICA 9, 122-3 (2 dinars); Album 2386.
Notes: This tanka, from the eastern Anatolian mint of Arzinjan (mod. Erzincan), as with many other mints, has the kalima in a central quadrilobe, with an outer legend composed of the names of the Rashidun, the four "rightly-guided" caliphs, Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, and 'Ali. The reverse type begins, as usual, with the name and titles of Timur's nominal Chagatai overlord (though the titles are not visible on this specimen). This is followed by Timur's title and name (amir Timur Kurkan), and an invocation to God to purpetuate his reign (khallada Allah mulkahu), followed by the mint citation (duriba Arzinjan). The central device on the reverse, present on a large number of Timur's coinage, three annulets arranged in a triangle, is probably his personal tamgha.



                AR 2 Dinars (1.66 g, 17mm, 1). With Chagatai Khan Mahmud.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:


Ref:
Arzinjan (Erzincan).
Circa AH 804-807 / AD 1402-1405.
Central kufic legend:
         la ilah illa | Allah, Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity except | God, Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu | 'Umar | 'Uthman | ['Ali]
         (same)
Naskh legend:
         al-sultan | Mahmud Khan, (al-)adil | amir (3 annulets) Timur | Kurkan duriba | Arzinjan
         (al-sultan | Mahmud Khan, the just | amir (3 annulets) Timur | Kurkan. Struck [at] | Arzinjan)
SICA 9, 122-3; Album 2383.
Notes: This 2 Dinar coin, from the eastern Anatolian mint of Arzinjan (mod. Erzincan), as with many other mints, has the kalima in a central quadrilobe, with an outer legend composed of the names of the Rashidun, the four "rightly-guided" caliphs, Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, and 'Ali. The reverse type begins, as usual, with the name and titles of Timur's nominal Chagatai overlord (though the titles are not visible on this specimen). This is followed by Timur's title and name (amir Timur Kurkan), followed by the mint citation (duriba Arzinjan). The central device on the reverse, present on a large number of Timur's coinage, three annulets arranged in a triangle, is probably his personal tamgha.



                AR Akçe (0.89 g, 13mm, 7). Struck under the Isfendiyarids, citing Timur as overlord.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:
Ref:
Pedig:
Uncertain Isfendiyarid mint (northern Anatolia).
Circa AH 804-807 / AD 1402-1405.
Central kufic legend:
         la ilah [illa Allah], | Muhammad | rasulu[allah]
         (There is no deity [except God,] | Muhammad | is the messenger [of God])
[Marginal Naskh legend?:]
         [Abu Bakr | 'Umar | 'Uthman | 'Ali]
         [(same)]
Uncertain Naskh legend; three annulets in center.
Album 2385.
Ex Album FPL 231 (January 2008), no. 60452.



                AR 2 Dinars (1.34 g, 20mm, 5).

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:



Ref:
Pedig:
Lar.
Uncertain.
Central kufic legend:
         [la ilah illa] | Allah, Muhammad | rasuluallah
         ([There is no deity except] | God, Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [Abu Bakr] | ['Umar] | 'Uthman | ['Ali]
         (same)
Central Naskh legend:
         duriba | Lar
         (Struck at | Lar)
Illegible marginal legend.
SICA 9, -; Album 2367.
Ex Album FPL 240 (January 2009), no. 74005.



                AR 2 Dinars (1.44 g, 20mm, 5). With Chagatai Khan Suyurghatmish.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:





Rev:


Ref:
Pedig:
Uncertain.
Uncertain.
Within polylobe, central Kufic legend:
         la ilah illa | Allah, Muhammad | rasuluallah
         (There is no deity except | God, Muhammad | is the messenger of God)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         Abu Bakr | ['Umar] | 'Uthman | 'Ali
         (same)
Central Naskh legend:
         al-sultan [al-'adil] | Suyurghatmish, khallada | Allah mulkahu, a- khan | -mir Timur Kurkan
         ([The just] sultan | Suyurghatmish, may God \ perpetuate his reign, a-, Khan | -mir Timur Kurkan)
SICA 9, -; Album 2367.
Ex Album FPL 238 (August 2008), no. 724 (69979).
Notes: The engraving of the names and titles of Timur and his nominal Chagatayid overlord on this piece is very unusual. The top line contains al-sultan al-adil, the epithets of the Chagatayid khan Suyurghatmish. The second line contains his name, Suyurghatmish, followed by khallada, the first word of the three word phrase commonly found on Timur's coins, khallada Allah mulkahu (may God perpetuate his reign). The third line continues this phrase with Allah mulkahu, followed immediately by the single letter a (which must be the first letter of Timur's title, amir), and the word khan (which refers, in this instance, to Suyurghatmish). The fourth line begins with the rest of Timur's title, -mir, above Timur, followed by Kurkan, Timur's epithet.