THE COLLECTION
RESOURCES
BAHRI MAMLUKS

al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baybars I
AH 658-676 / AD 1260-1277


                AR Dirham (2.47 g, 22mm, 12). With Caliph al-Mustansir.

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:






Rev:





Ref:
Unnamed mint (in Syria?).
Undated, struck AH 659-60 (AD 1261).
Central Naskh legend:
         Baybars, al-Salihi | al-malik al-Zahir | Rukn al-Dunya wa al-Din
         (Baybars, the good | Prince Manifest, | Pillar of the World and of the Faith)
[Below, lion passant left]
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top (skipping bottom):
         [bism Allah] | [al-rahman] | al-rahim
         ([In the name of Allah] | [the merciful] | the compassionate)
Central Naskh legend:
         el-imam al-Mustansir | billah Abu'l-Qasim | [Ahmad, amir al-mu'minin]
         (The Imam al-Mustansir | in Allah, Abu'l-Qasim | [Ahmad, Commander of the Faithful])
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         la ilah illa Allah | wahdahu, la sharika lahu | Muhammad rasuluallah
         (There is no diety except god | alone, [He has no equal] | [Muhammad] is the messenger of [God])
Balog, Mamluk 42; SICA 6, 1181; Album 883.


                AR Dirham (2.98 g, 21mm, 8).

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:




Rev:





Ref:
al-Quahira (Cairo).
Dated AH 669 (AD 1270-1271).
Central Naskh legend:
         al-Salihi | al-sultan al-[malik] | al-Zahir Rukn al-Dunya wa al-Din | Baybars qasim amir al-mu'minin
         (The good | Sultan, Prince, | Manifest Pillar of the World and of the Faith | Baybars, associate of the
         Commander of the Faithful)
Below, lion passant left
Central Naskh legend:
         la ilah illa Allah | Muhammad rasuluallah | arsalahu bi'l-huda
         (There is no diety except God | Muhammad is the messenger of God | He sent him with guidance)
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [duriba al-Quahira] | sanat tis' | wa sittin | [wa] sitt mi'at
         ([Struck in Cairo] | year nine | and sixty | [and] six-hundred)
Balog, Mamluk 85; SICA 6, -; Album 883.
Notes: During the period in which this coin is dated, 20 August 1270 - 9 August 1271, Christian Europe launched the final crusades into the Holy Lands, largely in response to Baybars' capture of Antioch in 1268. Louis IX of France (the latter 'St. Louis') called for an Eighth Crusade in 1267, but it was not until the fall of Antioch that he and his brother, Charles of Anjou, were able to gather the requisite forces. The army landed on the African coast in July 1270, but almost immediately most of the men fell ill due to the poor conditions. Louis soon died, and by 30 October, Charles called off the siege of Tunis, effectively ending the Crusade. Baybars intended on sending forces to help the Muslim forces, but decided not to upon hearing of Louis' death. Meanwhile, Edward I of England gathered forces to assist the Eighth Crusade, but arrived just upon its ending. Nonetheless, he, along with Charles of Anjou, continued on to Acre, marking the beginning of the Ninth Crusade. Edward arrived in Acre in May 1271, just as Baybars was beginning to besiege Tripoli, the only other city remaining in the hands of the Crusaders. Baybars was forced to end his siege as the Crusaders were able to effectively disrupt his lines of communication to Egypt. Also, Edward formed an alliance with the Ilkhans, who began attacking the Baybars' allies in Aleppo. However, the Mongol advances were little more than raids which had little lasting effect. Over the fall and winter months, little territory changed hands, and both sides eventually entered into negotiations for a long-lasting peace treaty. The negotiations nearly failed due to an assassination attempt on Edward's life, but the death of his father, Henry III, necessitated his return to England, so he completed a hasty treaty and withdrew, leaving Baybars' power in the region relatively unscathed by the Crusade.


al-Ashraf Salah al-Din Khalil
AH 658-676 / AD 1260-1277


                AR Dirham (3.02 g, 23mm, 1).

Mint:
Struck:
Obv:






Rev:





Ref:
Dimashq (Damascus) mint.
Dated AH 690 (AD 1290).
Central Naskh legend:
         al-sultan al-malik | al-Ashraf Salah al-Dunya | wa al-Din Khalil bin
         (The Sultan, The Prince | The Honorable, Righteousness of the World | and the Faith, Khalil, from)
         continuing to:
Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from left:
         [Mawlana | al-Sultan | al-Malik | al-Mansur]
         ([Our benefactor | the Sultan | the Prince | al-Mansur])
Central Naskh legend:
         [la ilah] illa Allah | Muhammad rasuluallah | [arsalahu] bi'l-huda
         ([There is no diety] except God | Muhammad is the messenger of God | [He sent him] with guidance)
         floral ornament above rasul Marginal Naskh legend, counterclockwise from top:
         [duriba Dimashq | sanat | sittin | wa sitt mi'at]
         ([Struck in Damascus | year | ninety | and six-hundred])
Balog, Mamluk 151b (same rev. die); SICA 6, -; Album 898.
Notes: Khalil is most famous for his siege and capture of Acre (1290-1291), and for completing the expulsion of the Crusaders from the Holy Land. This coin is from the mint of Damascus, dated to the year he began the siege of Acre, and probably was struck in conjunction with this endeavor. The outer legend on the obverse is the patronymic for his father, Qala'un.