THE COLLECTION
RESOURCES
KINGS of MACEDON
PAUSANIAS
394/3 BC

                Fourrée Drachm (2.87 g, 13mm, 7).

      Mint: Aigai(?).
      Struck: 394/3 BC.
      Obv: [no legend]
                Horse leaping right.
      Rev: ΠΑΥΣ-Α-Ν-Ι
                Forepart of lion right.
      Ref: Westermark, Remarks, pl. LXIX, 26; AMNG III 3; SNG ANS -;
                SNG München -; SNG Alpha Bank 185.

Notes: Drachms of Pausanias are extremely rare, with only five known to Wesermark in public collections (BM, Glasgow, and Athens), and four in CoinArchives. Westermark (p. 306) notes that the vast majority of Pausanias' silver coins are plated, reflecting a possible shortage of silver during his reign.


PHILIP II
359-336 BC

                AR Drachm (3.42 g, 16mm, 4).

      Mint: Amphipolis.
      Struck: 356-355 BC.
      Obv: [no legend]
                Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
      Rev: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ
                Horseman riding left, holding palm and raising right hand;
                Thunderbolt below, ΔΗ in exergue.
      Ref: Le Rider pl. 23, 22; SNG ANS 461; SNG Alpha Bank 282 var.
                (control mark); Winterthur 1463 (same rev. die).
      Pedig: Ex Münzen & Medallien GmbH 10 (22 Mar 2002), lot 176.

Notes: According to LeRider, this mint/control mark denotes the first issue of Philip's coinage minted at Amphipolis (issue IA). M. Price's rearrangement of LeRider's mint scheme would place this coin in the first issue of the mint of Pella in 348 BC (see previous lot for discussion). Other published specimens: SNG Copenhagen 567-8 var. (control marks); SNG Berry 123 var. (same); Pozzi 1652 var. (same); Winterthur 1463 (same reverse die).


ALEXANDER III 'the Great'
336-323 BC

                AR Drachm (4.29 g, 17mm, 9).

      Mint: Primary Macedonian mint ('Amphipolis').
      Struck: Under Antipater, circa 325-323 BC.
      Obv: [no legend]
                Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
      Rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ
                Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; in left field, o within Π.
      Ref: Price 141; Troxell, Studies, group E/F.
      Pedig: Ex Stephen Album List 218 (November 2006), no. 50546

Notes: This drachm type was unrecorded until the publication of the Sinan Pascha hoard in ADM I. The sole example in that hoard was later supplemented by another five found in the 1993 Near East hoard (publ. C.A. Hersh & H.A. Troxell, AJN 5-6 [1993]). The chronology of the Sinan Pascha hoard allowed Thompson, followed by Price, to place this issue among the huge tetradrachm issues with the same control (always paired with another symbol), dated to circa 320-317 BC. The inclusion of the type in the Near East hoard, certainly deposited by 322 BC, disproved such a late placement. In her seminal work on the primary Macedonian mint, Troxell firmly placed the issue parallel with her tetradrachm groups E and F, in the period circa 325-323 BC. By the time of her writing, she had located three additional three examples, bringing the total known to ten. As all of these coins were dispersed in the marketplace, it is uncertain whether the present coin is a new example, or one of these ten (only the Sinan Pascha coin and one of the Near East hoard coins are photographed [the latter was also the plate coin in Troxell, Studies).



                AR Drachm (4.27 g, 15mm, 3).

      Mint: Lampsakos.
      Struck: Under Kalas or Demarchos, circa 328/5-323 BC.
      Obv: [no legend]
                Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
      Rev: [ΑΛ]ΕΞΑΝΔΡ[ΟΥ]
                Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; caduceus in left field,
                monogram below throne.
      Ref: Price 1343 = ADM II 4 corr. (same dies, monogram not noted).
      Pedig: Ex Classical Numismatic Group 81/1 (20 May 2009), lot 332.

Notes: This coin is from the earliest issue of Alexandrine coinage at Lampsakos, which was comprised of both Tetradrachms and drachms. All of these coins have the caduceus symbol, and some have the additional monogram below the throne, as here. Although Price and ADM list the drachm denomination as only having the caduceus, this coin proves this to be incorrect. Both Price and ADM cite the ANS specimen (from the Sinan Pasha hoard), on which on the caduceus is visible. However, the present coin, struck from the same dies, proves that the ANS coin must also have this monogram, but that it is off the flan. Thus, this drachm issue corresponds to the tetradrachms of Price 1344, rather than Price 1342. This particular drachm issue is very rare, with the ANS/Sinan Pasha coin being the only published example (none were found in the 1993 Near East hoard, nor the 1964 Asia Minor hoard). The study of the 1993 Near East hoard by H.A. Troxell and C.A. Hersh (AJN 5-6 [1995]), provides the most recent analysis of the chronology of the emissions of the Alexander drachm mints. While many of the early emissions have been downdated at most mints, the evidence is inconclusive for the earliest issues at Lampsakos and Sardes. Circumstantial evidence suggests they were very limited issues, and may have begun as early as 330 BC. G. Le Rider, however, in an article affirming the findings of Troxell and Hersh ("Alexander in Asia Minor" in Essays Hersh), goes further, and provides an argument that none of the western Asia Minor mints began striking Alexander type coinage, in any denomination, until 325 BC. Regarding the issuing authority, Thompson (ADM) and Price are unclear, but it must have been Antigonos I Monophthalmos. In 333 BC, Alexander gave him the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, then Lycia and Pamphylia in 331 BC, effectively making Antigonos the Macedonian overlord of Western Asia Minor. It is interesting that the monogram on this, the earliest Alexandrine coinage at Lampsakos, may resolve as AN, which may refer to Antigonos.



                AR Drachm (4.28 g, 17mm, 8).

      Mint: Abydos.
      Struck: Under Kalas or Demarchos, circa 325-323 BC.
      Obv: [no legend]
                Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
      Rev: [ΑΛ]ΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ
                Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; left; in left field,
                Hermes standing left, head right, holding kerykeion;
                Ξ below throne.
      Ref: Price 1499 corr. and 1502; ADM II Series I, 20 (same obv. die).
      Pedig: Ex Classical Numismatic Group 93 (22 May 2013), lot 145.

Notes: This drachm is from the first issue of Alexander type coinage at the mint of Abydos, which was composed of staters, tetradrachms, and drachms. All coins of this issue have the same control marks, Hermes and a Ξ (sometimes engraved in a horizontal orientation). Although Price 1496-1501 list a type with "male left, wearing chlamys" ADM clearly shows that this is erroneous. The coins Price reference simply were struck such that the full figure is not visible. As such, the following entries in Price are redundant: 1499 and 1502, and 1501 and 1503. Furthermore, it is likely that Price 1496 and 1497 are the same type, with the coins of Price 1496 likewise struck off center such that the Ξ is not visible. Of note about this particular coin, the engraver of the dies of this drachm was likely also the engraver of one of the tetradrachm dies: ADM 7.



                AR Drachm (4.26 g, 16mm, 12).

      Mint: Sardes.
      Struck: Under Menander, circa 330/25-324/3 BC.
      Obv: [no legend]
                Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
      Rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ
                Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; in left field, griffin
                head left.
      Ref: Price 2536; ADM I 25; SNG Saroglos 787.

Notes: This coin is from the earliest issue of Alexandrine silver at Sardes, which was comprised of only drachms. Sardes was among the earliest mints in Asia Minor, and was the royal mint for the Persians, striking darics and sigloi down to the time of Alexander's conquest. Newell, Thompson, and Price all assert that Sardes must have been employed by Alexander almost immediately after capturing the mint. The first three issues were comprised exclusively of staters, and were issued in substantial quantities. The fourth issue was apparently significant, as it was not only composed of staters, but also halves and quarters, as well as these drachms. Although the mint became one of the drachm mints for Alexandrine coins, staters also continued to be issued in large numbers, attesting to the importance of the mint. This particular drachm issue is very rare, with only about seven known prior to the present coin (the first is in the Saroglos collection, another was in the 1964 Asia Minor hoard [currently in the Hersh collection], and five were found in the 1993 Near East hoard). The study of the 1993 Near East hoard by H.A. Troxell and C.A. Hersh (AJN 5-6 [1995]), provides the most recent analysis of the chronology of the emissions of the Alexander drachm mints. While many of the early emissions have been downdated at most mints, the evidence is inconclusive for the earliest issues at Lampsakos and Sardes. Circumstantial evidence suggests they were very limited issues, and may have begun as early as 330 BC. G. Le Rider, however, in an article affirming the findings of Troxell and Hersh ("Alexander in Asia Minor" in Essays Hersh), goes further, and provides an argument that none of the western Asia Minor mints began striking Alexander type coinage, in any denomination, until 325 BC. Regarding the issuing authority, Thompson (ADM) and Price are unclear, but it must have been Antigonos I Monophthalmos. In 333 BC, Alexander gave him the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, then Lycia and Pamphylia in 331 BC, effectively making Antigonos the Macedonian overlord of Western Asia Minor.



                AR Drachm (4.16 g, 16mm, 12).

      Mint: Arados.
      Struck: Under Menes, circa 325/4-324/3 BC.
      Obv: [no legend]
                Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
      Rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡ[ΟΥ]
                Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; AP monogram in left field.
      Ref: Cf. Price 3424 (tetradrachm).
      Pedig: Ex London Ancient Coins 12 (7 June 2012), lot 76.

Notes: This coin is the only known drachm for the large issue of tetradrachms listed as Price 3424, for which a handful of obols have also recently come to light. (Note: Price 3426 appears to be the same as Price 3424, but the difference is the style, most recognized by the position of the legs of Zeus, with the latter issue having parallel legs while the former has crossed legs.) The conventional attribution of this issue to Byblos was based on Newell's analysis of the Demanhur hoard, but Price thought that this mint assignment was highly doubtful. In his recent study of the Alexander coinage, Le Rider also was of the opinion that Byblos was incorrect. In the Helllenistic period, this particular monogram was the canonical civic monogram of Arados. Although most of the early Aradian Alexanders with a civic monogram had a different form, with the P in small form below the A, this fact is not dispositive of these also being assigned to that mint. In addition to the monogram, the overall style strongly suggests an attribution to Arados. In particular, the lion's mane and the hair of Herakles on the obverse, and the drapery on the legs of Zeus on the reverse are identical to the early issues of both Tarsos and Myriandros (or Issos), which are securely dated to Alexander's lifetime. Except for Tyre, all of the Phoenician cities peacefully capitulated to Alexander, and were therefore given very favorable treatment. It is likely, as at Tarsos, that the production of Alexanders at these long-operating mints began shortly after their conquest. Arados is the northernmost mint in Phoenicia, and is the closest mint to both Tarsos and Myriandros/Issos to strike Alexanders, which would explain the strong stylistic similarity of these Alexanders to the Alexanders from those mints.



                AR Drachm (4.15 g, 16mm, 8).

      Mint: Sidon.
      Struck: Under Menes. Dated RY 7 of Abdalonymos (327/6 BC).
      Obv: [no legend]
                Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
      Rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ
                Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; Phoenician 7 (date) in left
                field, ΣI below throne.
      Ref: Cf. Price 3483 (tetradrachm); cf. Newell, Sidon 22 (tetradrachm).

Notes: This is the earliest known dated Alexander-type drachm from a Phoenician mint. At Sidon, previously the only known issue of drachms was Price 3488, from year 9. This is one of only two known drachms from year 7 (the other is in a private collection), which is the first year of the dated coinage at Sidon.



                AR Drachm (4.30 g, 14.5mm, 6).

      Mint: Tyre.
      Struck: Under Menon or Menes, circa 332/1-328/7 BC.
      Obv: [no legend]
                Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
      Rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ
                Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; no control marks.
      Ref: Price 3245 (Ake); Newell, Dated 7 (Ake).

Notes: For the reattribution of the Alexander series of Ake to the mint of Tyre, see A. Lemaire, “Le monnayage de Tyr et celui dit d’Akko dans la deuxième moitié du IV siècle avant J.-C.,” RN 1976, and G. Le Rider, Alexander the Great: Coinage, Finances, and Policy (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 2007), pp. 125-34.

This coin is from the very rare first issue of drachms at the mint of Tyre. Although Newell (and Price) do not explain the placement of these drachms in the series, it certainly must have been based on style. An examination of the published drachms of this issue shows that the style of the obverse and reverse dies that were used are identical to that found on tetradrachms of Newell's Period II, where he places this issue.



                AR Drachm (4.23 g, 16mm, 8).

      Mint: 'Babylon'.
      Struck: 325-323 BC.
      Obv: [no legend]
                Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
      Rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ
                Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; M in left field, monogram
                below throne.
      Ref: Price 3604; Seleucus I Hoard 1294 (this coin).
      Pedig: 2005 Commerce ("Selucus I") Hoard (CH X, 265).

Notes: Lifetime issue, struck at Babylon, during the time Alexander was there (and died). According to Price's introduction to the 'Babylon' mint, it is possible that the large "second group" (or series), to which this coin belongs, may have been struck at the mint in Susa, rather than Babylon (based on stylistic and logistical considerations). Also notible is that while the tetradrachms of this series are numerous, only two varieties of drachms are noted, and they are quite rare (there are only 6 published specimens of Price 3604: SNG Copenhagen 936, Pozzi Europe 1923, Meydancikkale 2238, Price 3604 (the Hersh collection specimen), plus two in collections referenced by Price: Lincoln [1898] and Montagu [Sotheby, 15 May 1897]).



                AR Drachm (4.25 g, 16mm, 1).

      Mint: Susa.
      Struck: Circa 324-320 BC.
      Obv: [no legend]
                Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
      Rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ
                Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; monogram in left field,
                monogram below throne.
      Ref: Price 3830A var. (control marks).

Notes: Susa, a major Persian city and imperial residence, was captured by Alexander in December, 331 BC. The easternmost of Alexander's mints, coinage apparently began there shortly before Alexander's death. However, no detailed study has been done of the pre-Seleukid coinage of Susa, and the attribution of its earliest issues is tentative. Except for the drachms Price 3830A and the present coin, as well as the obol Price 3834, all of the recorded issues have the royal title, which suggests they were struck no earlier than 324 BC, when it is thought to have been introduced. As later issues at Susa also include a handful of varieties without the title, the absence of the title on some may not be relevant for determining their chronology relative to the other early Susa issues.



PHILIP III Arrhidaios
323-317 BC

                AR Drachm (4.05 g, 16mm, 7). In the name of Alexander III.

      Mint: Primary Macedonian mint ('Amphipolis').
      Struck: Under Antipater, circa 320-319 BC.
      Obv: [no legend]
                Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
      Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ
                Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; monogram in left field.
      Ref: Cf. Price 121; cf. Troxell, Studies, group I3 (tetradrachms);
                Zhuyuetang 97 (same dies).
      Pedig: Ex VAuctions 214 (16 October 2008), lot 4.

Notes: Troxell notes that she knew of no small denominations of Alexander type following her Group F, circa 323/2 BC. This coin, though, is the drachm denomination corresponding to the tetradrachms of her Group I3, which she dates circa 320/19 BC. Only the Zhuyuetang and the present coin are known for this issue, and no drachms or other silver fractions have been identified for any other of the post-Group F period of Alexander coinage at the primary Macedonian mint. Troxell's dates for Group I comport with the period just following the conclusion of the First Diadoch War, when huge numbers of troops would have been returning to Macedon after the peace of Triparadisos. As with the Alexander drachms of the Asia Minor mints during this time, it is possible that these drachm were part of a payment to troops redeploying from the East..



                AR Drachm (3.61 g, 15mm, 10). In the name of Alexander III.

      Mint: Uncertain mint in Cilicia.
      Struck: Under Philoxenos, circa 320-318/7 BC.
      Obv: [no legend]
                Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
      Rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡ[ΟΥ]
                Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; ΦΙ in left field, ΛΣ below throne.
      Ref: Price 2961; M. Thompson, "The Cavalla Hoard (IGCH 450)" in
                MN 26 (1981), pl. ix, G (same dies).
      Pedig: Ex Roma E-16 (28 February 2015), lot 85.



                AR Drachm (4.27 g, 17mm, 11). In the name of Alexander III.

      Mint: Side mint.
      Struck: Under Antigonos I Monophthalmos, circa 320-317/6 BC.
      Obv: [no legend]
                Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
      Rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ
                Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; no control marks.
      Ref: Price 2974; M. Thompson, "The Cavalla Hoard (IGCH 450)" in
                MN 26 (1981), 16a = ANS 1952.123.185 (same obv. die).



                AR Drachm (4.30 g, 16mm, 1).

      Mint: Ekbatana mint.
      Struck: Circa 323-317 BC.
      Obv: [no legend]
                Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
      Rev: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ
                Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; Δ in left field, ΖΩ below throne.
      Ref: Price P222.

Notes: As with most of the eastern Alexandrine mints, there has been little study of the pre-Seleukid issues at Ekbatana. Unlike the other mints, though, only three issues are possible for this period at Ekbatana: Price 3956, P221, and P222. The hoard context of these coins make their placement at an eastern mint certain, and their style are a close match with the earliest Seleukid pieces placed at Ekbatana. Price sees a connection of the Zo- of these issues and the Zod- of the early Seleukid issues, but this is speculative. Interestingly, though Alexander placed his treasury at Ekbatana, no coins are known to even possibly belong there during his lifetime. Therefore, if the placement of these Zo- issues are confirmed to belong at Ekbatana, they would be the earliest Alexandrine coinage there.


ANTIGONOS II Gonatas
277/6-239 BC

                AR Drachm (4.06 g, 17mm, 2).

      Mint: Amphipolis.
      Struck: Circa 274/1-260/55 BC.
      Obv: [no legend]
                Horned head of Pan left, with lagobolon over shoulder, in
                the center of a Macedonian shield.
      Rev: BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΓΟΝΟΥ
                Athena Alkidemos, seen from behind, advancing left, shield
                decorated with aegis on left arm, preparing to cast thunderbolt
                held aloft in right hand; crested Macedonian helmet to inner
                left, HP monogram to inner right.
      Ref: Panagopoulou Period I, 152 (O1/R1) = BM Inv. 1886, 1111.1;
                otherwise unpublished.
      Pedig: Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 336 (8
                October 2014), lot 49.

Notes: Although the Gonatas' Pan-Athena tetradrachms are quite common, this is only the second known example of a drachm. The BM specimen has been in their collection since 1888, but had not been published until appearing recently on their website.