THE COLLECTION
RESOURCES
DUCHÉ de NORMANDIE

GUILLAUME II le Conquérant
1035-1087


                AR Denier (0.84 g, 18mm, 3).

      Mint: Rouen.
      Struck: Circa 1083-1087.
      Obv: + NORMANNIA
                Patriarchal cross; two pellets below.
      Rev: [no legend]
                Church pediment, containing pellet, surmounted by cross;
                on each side, letters P A X within semicircles.
      Ref: Dumas, Group C, pl. XX, 23; Le Gros 335; Poey d'Avant –;
                Duplessy, Féodales –; Roberts –.

Notes: Legros connects this issue to William's PAXS type in England, c. 1083-1087, and the form of the legend, with the letters PAX within nearly circular lobes clearly has an affinity for the reverse style of William's issue. However, in addition to this PAXS type, there were three other PAX issues that were struck in relative proximity to it: Edward the Confessor struck his PACX type in 1042-1044, Harold II struck his PAX issue in 1066, and Henry I struck a PAX type in 1103. Of course, neither Edward or Harold could possibly have struck a Norman issue during their reign, but perhaps the Norman coinage was influenced by the English types? This issue is somewhat simplified by J.C. Moesgaard's analysis of the Norman coinage in light of numerous hoards (“Monnaies normandes dans les régions baltiques à l’époque Viking,” RN 161 [2005]). He was able to place the various nameless Norman coinage into general date ranges. He dates Dumas Group C, to which this PAX issue belongs, to c. 1075-1130. This dating excludes the possibility of a connection to the Anglo-Saxon issues of Edward and Harold. At the same time, Moesgaard's dating does not exclude an Norman issue analogous to the English issue of Henry I. While the type here is stylistically more similar to William's type (as noted above), his issue used the legend PAXS, not PAX, which is more similar to the issue of Henry. Nevertheless, the interpretation of the various PAX type by S. Keynes (“An interpretation of the Pacx, Pax and Paxs pennies,” Anglo-Saxon England 7 [1978]), as an invocation of Christ, shows that the addition of the C (in Edward's Pacx) and S (in William's PAXS), were done for the purpose of symmetry in a four-part reverse formed by a long cross, which was not necessary on the three-letter PAX issues of Harold and Henry. Thus, the use of the three letter form on the Norman issue is predicated on the three-sided pediment around which they appear, and therefore is not necessarily reflective of the exact issue it may be associated with in the English coinage.


ROBERT II Courteheuse
As Count, circa 1067-1087


                AR Denier (0.93 g, 20mm, 8).

      Mint: Rouen.
      Struck: Uncertain.
      Obv: ROB[...] COMES
                Cross pattée; pellets in angles.
      Rev: [no legend]
                Norman-style two-towered cathedral façade; nave decorated
                with cross in pediment, and surmounted by cross on globe;
                pellet in pediment of towers; retrograde S and S flanking
                nave with central cross.
      Ref: Dumas Group B/C, pl. XIX, 17; Le Gros 338 var. (obv. legend);
                Poey d'Avant –; Duplessy, Féodales –; Roberts –.

Notes: These very rare deniers of Normandie with the legend naming Count Robert have been the subject of great debate. Although Robert Courteheuse would be the most logical person this identifies, numismatic scholars have suggested other counts named Robert who ruled under William, such as Robert of Eu and Robert of Mortain. These scholars, however, fail to account for two problems that should discount anyone other than William's son Robert. First, most of these other Roberts ruled in areas that struck their own coins, so an issue from Rouen in their name makes little sense. Second, Robert Courtehouse, in at least five diplomas, is styles "comes normannorum" alongside his father, who is styled as "dux normannorum" (see G. Garnett, Conquered England: Kingship, Succession, and Tenure 1066-1166 [Oxford: Oxford UP, 2007], pp. 158-60). The earliest of these diplomas date to 1067, which is well within the timeframe of 1050-1075 that Dumas (confirmed by Mosegaard) gives to his Group B/C coins. Thus, it is quite reasonable to conclude that these coins of Rouen in the name of Count Robert are referring to none other than Robert Courteheuse.


As Duke, 1087-1106

                AR Denier (0.90 g, 17mm, 12).

      Mint: Rouen or Bayeau.
      Struck: Uncertain.
      Obv: [+ NO]RMAN[NA]
                Cross pattée; pellets in angles.
      Rev: [no legend]
                Church pediment, containing pellet, surmounted by cross,
                four columns below; on each side, S above O.
      Ref: Dumas Group C, pl. XX, 4; Le Gros 348; Poey d'Avant 135;
                Duplessy, Féodales –; Roberts 4835.


                AR Denier (0.93 g, 20mm, 8).

      Mint: Rouen or Bayeau; moneyer Riau-.
      Struck: Uncertain.
      Obv: + NOR[MAN]NA
                Cross pattée; pellets in angles.
      Rev: •RI/•AV in two lines.
      Ref: Dumas Group D, pl. XXI, 17; Le Gros 372 corr. (letters on rev.);
                Poey d'Avant –; Duplessy, Féodales 32; cf. Roberts 3901-9.

Notes: This issue is from a large group of very rare moneyer-signed issues, where the obverse has the usual NORMANNA around a cross, but the reverse contains part of a name in two lines. These issues were the first Norman coins to contain moneyer names, and it is thought that they were influenced by the issues of Norman England. The first of this particular moneyer's coinage was a single find in a hoard reported by V. Luneau ("Quelques deniers normands inédits du XIe siècle. Nouvelle trouvaille" in RN 1911). That coin was, as most Norman coins of the period, very poorly preserved, and Luneau read the reverse as •PI/•AV, but also placed a question mark after the letters, noting the difficulty in the reading. Legros cited that example, which she thought was unique at the time of her work in 1984. However, Dumas' landmark article on Norman coinage in RN 1979, found a total of four examples, from three hoards, and the other examples clarified the reading of the reverse as RI/AV (Dumas hoard 74 is the source of the coin reported by V. Luneau; Dumas hoard 73 has one example of this type, now in the BN; and Dumas hoard 70 has 2 examples of this issue, now in BN).


HENRI I Beauclerc
1106-1135


                AR Denier (0.98 g, 20mm).

      Mint: Rouen or Bayeau.
      Struck: Uncertain.
      Obv: + [NORM]ANNA
                Cross pattée; pellets in angles.
      Rev: [no legend]
                Central annulet connected by bars to three annulets, dividing
                field into thirds; in each angle, pediment with central pellet.
      Ref: Dumas Group C, pl. XX, 16; Le Gros 395; Poey d'Avant –;
                Duplessy, Féodales –; Roberts 4839.


                AR Denier (0.96 g, 18mm).

      Mint: Rouen.
      Struck: Uncertain.
      Obv: + NORMANNIA[...]
                Cross pattée; pellets in angles.
      Rev: [no legend]
                Central cross with triangles at top and base containing, and
                flanked by, pellets; at sides, bars with annulet ends.
      Ref: Dumas Group C, pl. XX, 13; Le Gros 401 var. (obv. legend);
                Poey d'Avant –; Duplessy, Féodales –; Roberts 4837.