EDWARD III Plantagenet

                AR Penny (1.06 g, 17mm, 4). Pre-Treaty Series Ga.

      Mint: London.
      Struck: Circa Apr/Jul 1356-Jun 1357.
                Crowned facing bust; annulet on breast, annulet stops.
                Long cross; triple pellets in quarters, annulet in quarter
                below CIVI.
      Ref: Lawrence 7*-9; North 1205; SCBC 1589.

Notes: This issue was struck during the height of Edward's campaign in France during the 100 Years War. His son, Edward the Black Prince, won the Battle of Poitiers in September 1356, capturing the French king, John II, and completely routing the French forces. Many of the great nobles of France were captured or killed, and the kingdom was in ruin. Soon thereafter, though, the French were able to stave off further English advances, and the two kingdoms came to terms in the Treaty of Brétigny in 1359. The Pre-Treaty coinage of Edward all notionally name him as king of England and France, but the penny flans were too small to accommodate the French title. The pennies of Series Ga, to which this coin belongs, had the longest inscription, ending with the conjuntive Z-like letter between ANGLI and FRANC.

HENRY IV Bolingbroke

                AR Penny (0.90 g, 17mm, 3). Light coinage.

      Mint: Durham; under Bsp. Thomas Langley.
      Struck: 1411-1413.
      Obv: + ҺЄnRICVS : RЄX : ΛnGLIЄ
                Crowned facing bust; trefoil on breast; double saltire stops.
      Rev: CIVI · TΛS · DVn · OLm
                Long cross pattée; trefoil in quarters; pellet stops, saltire
                before CIVI.
      Ref: F.A. Walters, "The coinage of Henry IV," NC 1905, pl. XIII,
                12 (same obv. die); Allen 154; North 1365; SCBC 1735.

EDWARD IV Plantagenet
First reign, 1461-1470

                AR Penny (0.78 g, 16mm, 10). Heavy coinage.

      Mint: Durham; John Orwell, mintmaster under Bsp. Lawrence Booth.
      Struck: 1461-1462/3.
                Crowned facing bust; pellets flanking crown,
                i.m. cross, mullet stops.
                Long cross pattée; rose in center, trefoils in quarters.
      Im: Uncertain.
      Ref: Blunt & Whitton a14/bii; Allen 167; North 1544;
                SCBC 2053 (light coinage).

Notes: The Durham and York mints were the primary source of pennies struck during the latter part of Henry VI's reign and the reign of Edward IV. According to Allen's study, in 1460, John Orwell, a prominent London goldsmith, agreed to rent the mint of Durham for a year. Upon the acceptance of the succession of Edward IV, the dies Orwell had inherited from the previous mint master were rendered obsolete. Nonetheless, Orwell had been an engraver of dies as the King's engraver in London from 1431 to 1445, so he either made or commissioned new dies for Edward's coinage. Though technically "unofficial" dies, they were accepted for use in striking offical currency. These unoffical dies were used to strike a huge quantity of coins until 1462/3 when the mint was apparently closed. The mint resumed operation in 1464, at which time it received its first offical dies of Edward's reign. This period of closure was probably due to the revocation of the temporalities of the bishop by the king (7 December 1462-17 April 1464), but it also coincides with a general shortage of silver in England. Allen's analysis of the mint, synthesizing a wide array of contemporary records, conclusively debunks the earlier analysis of Blunt and Whitton, who thought that official dies were used until the revokation of the bishop's temporalities, and the local dies were used until his restoration of in 1464. Thus, this issue is not a 'king's receiver' coinage, as it did not occur while the king held the bishop's temporalities, but rather during a period in which the mint was rented to a mintmaster under the bishop's authority.

RICHARD III Plantagenet

                AR Penny (0.72 g, 14mm, 10).

      Mint: Durham; Bsp. John Sherwood.
      Struck: 1485.
                Crowned facing bust; D on breast.
      Rev: CIV[ITAS] DIRRAm
                Long cross pattée; D in center, trefoils in quarters.
      Ref: Allen 190; North 1687; SCBC 2169.
      Pedig: Ex Pegasi BBS 147 (24 February 2015), lot 551 (incor-
                rectly attributed to Edward IV).