HARALD I Blåtand (Bluetooth) Gormsson
Circa 958/9-986

                AR Halvbrakteat (0.36 g, 18mm). Imitating Charlemagne denier from Dorestadt mint

      Mint: Haithabu (Hedeby).
      Struck: Circa 960s-970s.
      Obv: Degraded TAT across central field; two crescents above,
                horizontal sword below.
      Rev: Degraded CARO above three crosses and two parallel lines.
      Ref: Malmer 1966, Group KG 9b-c; Hauberg 1; Hauberg Coll-
                ection 1-8.
      Pedig: Ex Classical Numismatic Review XL.2 (Summer 2015), no.
                407391; Classical Numismatic Review XIX.4 (Fourth Quarter
                1994), no. 426.

Notes: According to Malmer (1966, mod. 2002), this type was struck at Haithabu from the 9th-10th centuries. It imitates the types of the Class 2 deniers of Charlemagne struck at Dorestadt (cf. Depeyrot 410). By analyzing hoards and other materials, Malmer was able to recreate a relative chonology of issues for this coinage, noting that its weight and size were reduced over time. She was also able to reconstruct a general absolute chronology, which she modified in her 2002 article. Moosegard (in KHCC), generally agreed with Malmer's analysis, but slightly modified her chronology for the latest issues. His analysis, taken in context with his main analysis of Harald's other coinage at Haithabu, suggests that during the mid-late 10th century, the city was integrated into the Danish kingdom of Harald, who made the emporion part of his fortified southern defensive line of cities. Whether this Carolus-Dorestadt coinage was part of Harald's royal issues is not certain, but the issue to which the present coin belongs is during his reign. What is certain about this coinage is that it was a strictly controlled, and only circulated in Haithabu and its environs, evidenced by a lack of testing (peck marks, cutting, etc.) found on any of them. Analysis of hoards also confirms that no foreign coins were allowed to circulate along side the Danish coins in this region.

SVEND I Tveskæg (Forkbeard) Haraldsson

                AR Pfennig (2.15 g, 20mm, 3).

      Mint: Lund(?).
      Struck: Circa 997-1014.
                Bust left; scepter before.
      Rev: + • OZ••CETL II–O EOFRII:O
                Small cross pattée.
      Ref: Malmer Chain 101, dies 9.1079 = Blackburn, English 5
                (dies A/e); Hild. 812 (same dies).

Notes: This coin was struck from an official obverse die from the English mint of York, from the Crux type of Æthelred II, and a reverse die imitating Æthelred's Intermediate Small Cross type by the York moneyer Asketill. Malmer's die study of the Anglo-Scandinavian coinage solidified the view that three geographic groups exist, correlating generally to the medieval kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. This coin belongs to a die chain that falls in the 'southern' group. It is thought that the coins of this group were likely struck in the Danish kingdom at the mint of Lund, with some possibly belonging to Sigtuna. Although these coins imitating the Anglo-Saxon series were struck until c. 1020, when the Cnut the Great was striking his own coinage, this particular type, among the earliest issues, probably did not even last to the end of the reign of Svend Forkbeard.

HARDEKNUD (Knud III, the Hardy)

                AR Pfennig (0.99 g, 17mm, 3).

      Mint: Lund; Outhinkarl, moneyer.
      Struck: Circa 1040-1042.
      Obv: + HΛRÐECNVT :•
                Helmeted and armored bust left, shield on arm.
      Rev: + ΘÐÐENCR ΘN LVD
                Voided long cross with triple-crescent ends and pellet at
                center; in each quarter, trefoil on pile.
      Ref: Becker, Coinages, dies H22/162; Hauberg 23 (same dies);
                Becker Collection 27 (same dies); SCBC 1170.
      Pedig: Ex Andrew Wayne Collection (Classical Numismatic Group
                102, 18 May 2016), lot 1286; F.J. Shand Collection
                (Glendining’s, 8 March 1948), lot 348.

MAGNUS den Gode (the Good) Olafsson

                AR Pfennig (1.03 g, 17mm, 1).

      Mint: Lund; Sumarlith, moneyer.
      Struck: 1042-circa 1044.
      Obv: + MΛHNVS RE+
                Helmeted and armored bust left, shield on arm.
      Rev: + SVMERLEÐ ΘN
                Voided long cross with triple-crescent ends and pellet at
      Ref: Becker, Coinages, dies M4/184; Hauberg 1 var. (moneyer;
                same obv. die); Hede II 37 (this coin); cf. Becker
                Collection 63 (same obv. die).
      Pedig: Ex Andrew Wayne Collection (Classical Numismatic Group
                102, 18 May 2016), lot 1289; Holger Hede Collection (Part II,
                Bruun-Rasmussen, 28 September 1991), lot 327.

Notes: Becker’s die study of the Lund mint during the reigns of Harthacnut and Magnus the Good revealed that certain dies in the name of “Harthacnut” can be linked to obverses of Magnus. The present coin uses a reverse die that was previously paired with four different obverse dies of Harthacnut. Only this obverse die of Magnus was used with it, suggesting that it was one of the earliest in Magnus' reign.